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Duty to Care Guide

A Guide to Inclusion

One of six guides to support you on your Duty to Care journey. Learn how to apply the principles from the Inclusion pillar

Each guide in this series introduces the pillar that the guide covers, explaining the importance to participants, coaches, and coaching practice through key messages, practical tips, videos, downloads and templates. Take the next step and consider how you can apply the principles from the inclusion pillar to improve your coaching and your participants’ experiences.

In this guide:

  • Introduction to inclusion. Understand what is meant by inclusion and why it is important.
  • Creating an inclusive environment: Learn how to create an inclusive environment.
  • Building rapport with participants: consider how and why you can better connect with your participants.
  • Key skills and qualities for inclusive delivery: explore what participants want from an inclusive deliverer and how you can achieve this.
  • Creating and delivering an inclusive coaching programme: learn practical tools and approaches to delivering inclusive sessions.

Inclusion

The Oxford Dictionary defines inclusion as "the action or state of including or of being included within a group or structure."

As a coach, inclusion is about how you include, challenge and meet everyone's needs within your sessions.

Why inclusion is important in your coaching

It is crucial that inclusion is embedded within your coaching practice from planning through to delivery and post-session reflections. Being inclusive not only ensures you comply with legal requirements but also makes it more likely that participants will:

  • enjoy taking part
  • keep coming back
  • tell others about the sessions.

As a result, you will:

  • attract more participants and volunteers
  • be more able to sustain your activities
  • have a wider range of ideas and experiences you can build upon
  • further diversify your participants and coaching workforce.

People want to take part in physical activity and sport for many of the same reasons and motivations.

This includes:

  • keeping fit and healthy
  • promoting better well-being 
  • fun and enjoyment
  • social benefits and mixing with friends 
  • improving their ability to complete everyday tasks
  • skill development or competition.

There may also be personal and specific reasons why an individual wants to take part, such as to manage a long-term health condition or to progress their sporting performance along a talent pathway.

The common reasons for participation apply regardless of disability, gender, race, or other protected characteristics. Therefore, to deliver inclusively your sessions should provide an environment where everyone can enjoy being active together.

Throughout the guide, we refer to Get Out Get Active (GOGA), a programme that aims to engage the least active communities in fun and inclusive ways. Delivered across the UK, GOGA places people and communities at the heart of the activities delivered. It is led by Activity Alliance with local and national partners.

Consider

Delivered in partnership between Activity Alliance and Disability Sport Northern Ireland, GOGA developed a programme based on the needs of the local community in Northern Ireland. Watch the video and listen to the reasons, motivations, benefits, and needs of the participants.

 

Case study: Get Out Get Active promotes activity sessions in Northern Ireland:

Providing an inclusive environment for your sessions has a number of benefits, including:

  • attracting more participants and volunteers.
  • making participants feel included, happier, and more comfortable so they can engage in the sessions
  • ensuring that participants feel valued
  • supporting the development of confidence and self-belief
  • building stronger links with the local community
  • encouraging people with different backgrounds and experiences to bring new ideas, views, and innovation to the sessions
  • creating an environment that enables participants to reach their full potential
  • identifying potentially talented participants
  • meeting the legislative requirements under the Equality Act 2010.

Did you know...

64% of disabled people would prefer to take part in sport and physical activity with a mix of disabled and non-disabled people.

(Activity Alliance’s Disabled People’s Lifestyle report (2013))

Introduction to Inclusion

Inclusion is the culture of involving everyone. As an inclusive coach, you will treat people as individuals, value differences and create a sense of belonging for every participant. This approach supports participants to be themselves and reach their potential.

What is inclusion?

During the Covid-19 pandemic and the enforced isolation, many coaches and organisations had to find new and creative ways to remain connected to their participants and deliver their sessions.

Wayne, a Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) coach in Wales, adapted his sessions to ensure they were inclusive for all. Meg, a participant in the sessions, highlights what it feels like to be included and valued.

"How often do you find something where you think 'yeah okay, it’s not 100% accessible, but it’s fun, they’re open to conversation, and I can work with this?' If you are like me, it is not that often at all. Especially now, being trapped in this COVID- 19 pandemic, it feels a lot of the time accessibility and inclusion have had to take a giant back step.

"After a short time of sitting down and relaxing - which don’t get me wrong, was awesome, I felt that I needed to get a bit more active. 

"I am a very passionate goalball player, and I wanted to ensure that while in lockdown, I did not get too unfit, but I didn't know what to do. I started doing the little things like walking my dog in the park down the road, doing a walking challenge, using my Wii Fit, and trying out yoga via Alexa. 

"After a while, it got boring, seriously boring. I’m not very good at keeping focused when exercising on my own so I wanted to find something a bit more engaging, which would motivate me more, and one day, out of the blue, I found what I was looking for……

"I was on Facebook nosing around and I came across a sponsored post, which was from Get Out Get Active Wales (GOGA). They were advertising 'Wayne’s Weekly Workout' - a Free, weekly workout session over Zoom (every Thursday at 5pm to 5:30pm). It looked interesting, but as a visually impaired person, I had to investigate it more. I messaged GOGA and asked them some questions.

"I wanted to know if:

  • they thought it would be accessible to me 
  • it is descriptive enough for me to follow
  • I had to have my camera on
  • I would be able to ask questions and get clarity on exercises if needed during the session.

"To my surprise, I had a really uplifting message back answering all my questions. In fact, they pretty much said, "give it a try and please tell us what you need so we can do our best to support you and ensure it is accessible for you." It is not very often I get that sort of response. 

"So, with a few other people who also wanted to try it out, the next Thursday I gave it a go. And it was good, really good! The guy that delivers it, Wayne, was really engaging, friendly, and constantly checked that we all understood and knew what we were doing. His attitude and delivery really impressed me. 

"Okay yeah, there were one or two little things that were not described quite right, but it was one of the most accessible workouts I have ever been a part of. Wayne was very patient and more than anything made us feel like we could ask questions, and that we were not just interrupting (which has been my experience in a lot of exercise class situations). 

"I gave our feedback to GOGA and session by session, it just got better and better to the point that Wayne paused his workout timer to give us some clarity on one of the exercises. Now, not a lot of trainers do that, or I should say, not in my experience. 

"Of course, I’m not saying that what Wayne does is amazing, and no one else does it, because there are a lot of trainers and coaches out there who truly do want people to fully participate in their sessions. You have got to be lucky enough to find them. 

"With some sessions, there only needs to be slight tweaks. You can tell they want you to do your best and be fully involved, but they may not have the time to chat and understand what you need to adapt or change to help that happen. 

"Thankfully, with Wayne’s Weekly Workouts, that’s what we have. We get to fully participate, we feel we can ask questions when we need. We are getting the benefits of being active, we feel included in a community of others who enjoy working out.

"Most importantly we feel we can feedback anything positive or negative to GOGA (don’t forget, positive feedback is just as important as negative), because this then informs them that they’re meeting their objective, ‘they’re ensuring inclusion is exercised and we’re exercising inclusively’.

Reflect

What did Wayne do to include Meg in the session?

What one thing from Meg’s story could you ‘add’ to your sessions and coaching practice?

Do you think your participants would feel comfortable asking the questions that Meg asked Wayne?

 

Equality, Equity and Inclusion: what do they mean?

You may hear the terms equality, equity, and inclusion used interchangeably. However, they each mean something different.

The Equality Act 2010

The Equality Act 2010 is a framework of legislation that protects people from discrimination in the workplace and wider society. This includes in sport and physical activity. 

The Equality Act identifies nine ‘protected characteristics’ upon which you must not discriminate against. 

The protected charactistics are:

  • Age.
  • Disability.
  • Gender reassignment.
  • Marriage and civil partnership.
  • Pregnancy and maternity.
  • Race.
  • Religion or belief.
  • Sex.
  • Sexual orientation.

Due to the Equality Act, legally you cannot turn someone away from your coaching session because of a protected characteristic, such as their impairment or their gender. You must consider any reasonable adjustments that you can make to include the person. 

Reasonable adjustments are positive changes you should make to your sessions to ensure an individual is not disadvantaged compared to other participants. Any changes should be reasonable and proportionate, placing the person and their needs at the centre of your planning, thinking, and delivery.

Adjustments may include:

  • changes to physical features such as accessible ramps to the facility
  • the provision of alternative formats, such as an audio file as well as written information
  • involving a supporter, such as a carer, in the sessions or allowing them to travel with the team. 

As a coach, you can make a reasonable adjustment by:

  • changing the colour, shape, and size of the equipment you use
  • adapting how you deliver activities to make them easier or more challenging
  • changing session times so more people can attend
  • choosing locations with easy public transport links.

Often simple, small changes can have a big impact and not just on one participant. You most probably already make changes that would be considered reasonable adjustments without considering it.

When a new person attends your session, how do you adapt it to help them succeed?

Do you:

  • give them a buddy?
  • adapt or modify an activity?
  • set personal goals and targets with the individual?
  • provide them with appropriate ‘challenge’ to their ability and experience?
  • differentiate the session outcome for someone who is finding the activity too demanding?

These are all adjustments that place the person and their needs at the centre of your planning, thinking, and coaching practice.

Consider

Q. How inclusive is your current venue?

Q. How inclusive is your promotion and advertising for your sessions? Do they appeal to everyone?

Q. How inclusive is your organisation?

Q. How inclusive is the joining process? Membership fees? Can new participants borrow equipment to begin with?

 

Remember

You personally can’t be expected to install a lift at your venue. However, it would be reasonable for you to explore other more accessible venue options for participants to join your sessions.

Creating an Inclusive Environment

In this section, we will explore key principles you can apply to create an inclusive environment. We will also look at what a person-centred approach means and why this is crucial for effective inclusive delivery.

Meeting the wants and needs of your participants and considering how they will get the best from your sessions are key to inclusive coaching. Creating a coaching environment ensures that individual needs are satisfied, their motivations are met, and that they can set their own goals with your support to realise their potential. This is sometimes referred to as humanism learning theory.

Empowering participants to role model, guide, and support each other is a great way to help an individual progress and connect with others. Sometimes called social learning, this involves encouraging participants to voice their thoughts, express ideas, work together to achieve goals, and change their behaviours through emulating peers.

The GOGA programme in Nottingham highlights the importance of listening to participants to create an inclusive environment that meets their needs and enables disabled and non-disabled people to take part together.

Working in partnership with England Netball, GOGA Nottingham spoke to the local community to understand what activities they would like to engage in, something they could call their own.

Conversations began with the Muslim Community Organisation (MCO) Centre. They were keen to engage and connect with more people from different communities through the centre. They decided to create a Walking Netball session.

The project has been successful, with it quickly becoming clear that these sessions were more than the numbers taking part. The success is a combination of delivery and welcoming atmosphere, with participants going out of their way to encourage and welcome everyone to the session.

Each week, the session is carefully planned to take place between a cup of tea, some biscuits, and a chat before they make their way on court, creating an immediately obvious friendly environment for new and regular participants.

There is a huge breadth in the participant’s ages and abilities. Women in their 50s play and laugh alongside women in their 80s. One participant, a wheelchair user commented: ‘I never thought I would find myself at a walking netball session, I am loving it’.

The programme design carefully considered how they could involve participants’ personal assistants/carers in the sessions. They were incorporated into the sessions with the support and encouragement of other participants. They happily made small but effective adaptations, such as ‘lowering the pole to allow a greater chance of getting that all-important goal.

Through the sessions, three participants have been empowered to complete England Netball’s Walking Netball host course. They now support the sessions as leaders, running sessions for the community within the community. This has ensured that the programme is sustainable as sessions are managed and facilitated by the volunteers themselves.

The learning and key messages from these sessions have been applied across the city. Nottingham now has an established deliverer network to share learning with other providers across the city.

Reflect

To meet your responsibilities under the Equality Act and maximise your reach to participants, it’s important that your sessions provide an inclusive and welcoming environment for all individuals. Do your participants have a voice in your sessions? How could you gain a better understanding of your participants’ wants and needs?

 

The Ten Principles developed by the Activity Alliance will help you create an open, inclusive, and welcoming environment. Initially created through research with disabled people, they can be applied to support you to create and maintain an inclusive activity environment for all individuals.

The Ten Principles

Applying the Ten Principles will help you to reach, engage and sustain a much broader group of participants. By understanding people’s motivations to be active you can fulfill needs within the local community. The Ten Principles can be applied by an individual coach, club, organisation, or local authority to provide an inclusive environment for participants.

The Ten Principles provide a holistic approach to coaching, and can be split into three sections to help deliver an inclusive coaching environment:

  • Drive awareness.
  • Engage the audience.
  • Offer support and reassurance.

Principles in Action

The preferred methods of communication (such as email, phone, social media and posters) will be different for an older adult compared to young adult.

It’s easy to use what is quick for you, but this needs to meet your participants needs.

If participants will be reliant on public transport, is this affordable to them?

Have you considered the public transport timings, such as the time of the last bus?

Is there somewhere safe where participants can store their bicycle/scooter?

Not everyone with a disability will identify as a disabled person. Consider the language and messages you use to promote sessions as open to everyone.

If you ask participants to wear specific clothing for the activities (such as swimsuits, or wearing specific clothes at mixed sessions), is it appropriate to their values?

Are the social activities inclusive for everyone?

Reasons for being active can change over time. Do your sessions cater to this?

Can your sessions provide an opportunity for family members to take part together? Can you offer low-intensity or walking versions of your activity?

Can you involve parents, such as through opportunities to support activities, help in the organisation of the session, or manage small groups under your supervision?

You may want to consider running parallel sessions including childcare or offer an adult session at the same time as a young person’s session.

Confidence and fear of standing out can be a big barrier. Consider what information you can provide to participants in advance about the venue and sessions and provide photos and videos of the group and session to help people prepare.

Is there a checklist of what to bring, what they will need, clothing to wear?

Provide opportunities for individuals to attend a taster or several sessions before making a commitment. This is very important if equipment needs to be purchased or there is a membership fee.

Do you have a buddy system for new people to your sessions?

A welcoming face at the door is often all that people need, enabling them to put a face to the name of the person that they have connected with.

Using a parent as an informal liaison officer is a great way of developing a parent support group.

Ensure your activities are adapted and modified to enable everyone to take part at an appropriate level for them.

How do you collect feedback from participants? Are they encouraged to feedback at the session? Is there an opportunity for individuals who may not feel confident doing so in this way? Is feedback acted upon?

Do you have a participant group? Would a forum help shape your programme and sessions?

Have you considered using a check-in at the end of the session? This can be informal with a thumbs up and down, a score on their fingers (1-10) on how the session went or leaving a ‘tick’ on the whiteboard under three faces (smiley, straight face or unhappy).

Encourage participants to add value to sessions, make recommendations and provide choices to the session design, such as through co-creation of a game or activity, selecting the warm-up from a choice of their ‘favourites’, or creating three activities and asking participants to select which ones they go to.

This could be to select the activity that will help them improve the most, they enjoy the most or they think they’re best at.

Could you introduce a buddy scheme for new members that supports them to get to the session, works with them during the session, and checks in with them afterwards?

Could your current members help promote your sessions? Can they help out at taster days, or share their experience of being part of the activity?

Have a go

Start with principle #1: my channels. Which communication channels do you currently use? Do your participants also use them? Have you considered using social media, community forums, or promoting in local schools?

What could you do differently to attract and encourage new participants (or those considering returning) to come to your sessions?

 

Download a blank template to fill in while you think about how you can put the Ten Principles into action in your environment.

Download the top tips on making your sessions and activities more accessible and appealing.

There is no one set way to creating an inclusive environment. It is about satisfying the needs of everyone involved through a flexible and adaptable approach.

However, there are several things that will influence how inclusive your sessions are.

These include:

  • your communication
  • your relationships and rapport with participants
  • your coaching approach
  • your leadership style
  • your session plan and delivery
  • the assumptions or preconceptions you have, which is often termed unconscious bias.

Inclusive coaching

It is important to keep in mind that your unconscious bias may impact your ability to take a person-centred approach and therefore how inclusive you are. This may look like automatically grouping individuals of a similar background, giving men leadership roles, or holding committee meetings in a pub.

Look at the handy tips for inclusive delivery and coaching. The framework identifies different things you can apply to your sessions to have the greatest impact, considering everything from how you set up an activity, to the conversations you have and your individual approach.

A person-centred approach

A person-centred approach places the individual at the centre of your planning and practice, ensuring that your sessions are inclusive for everyone. This is where you take the time to understand your participants and adapt your coaching approach and practice.

Key to this is:

  • acknowledging and treating all participants as individuals
  • connecting with each person
  • understanding their individual needs, values and motivations
  • thinking holistically and considering the person's psychological, emotional, social, physical, and technical needs
  • designing and delivering your sessions to meet their needs rather than yours
  • meeting the individual where they are at for every session
  • recognising that development and progression are non-linear
  • being flexible and supporting individuals within your sessions to achieve success.

Remember: whilst some reasons for taking part in sessions will be the same for all participants, others will be specific to the individual and often they change over time.

Women in Sport’s research highlighted that every woman’s relationship with physical activity is unique and highly complex based on their life experiences and situation. Each woman or girl has personal values and beliefs that influence their decision-making and priorities within their lives. These values have different degrees of importance for different girls and women.

Look at the six areas identified by the research. Remember: as a person moves through their lifecycle their priorities change.

These principles can be applied to all participants.

When a person goes to university, they may initially prioritise their studies and making new friends. As a result, they may become inactive and worried about joining sessions in a new town.

A parent may have been balancing their career, family, and home life for years, and has now decided for health reasons to start exercising again.

A group of friends may begin playing football casually at a local ‘pay and play session’.  Some may really enjoy playing again and decide they want to join a team and play competitively. They join a team and begin training twice a week and play games in a league as well as attending casual sessions with their friends.

You should plan your sessions to meet individual values. Designing your activities around individual values such as having fun or making social connections rather than competition can make sessions more enjoyable, encouraging individuals to keep coming back.

Reflect

Are your reasons for coaching and your values the same as your participants’?  

Is there an alignment between their reasons for coming to the sessions and why you coach?  

Coaching sessions should be based on individuals’ real-life motivations to be physically active and take part.

 

The GOGA programmes identified six principles to ensure sessions remain people-first:

  • Unique programme design.
  • Focusing on the importance of people.
  • Focusing on the importance of partnerships.
  • Building genuinely inclusive delivery.
  • Creating a workforce that understands people.
  • A commitment to sustainability.

(GOGA, delivered by Activity Alliance in association with Wavehill and Sheffield Hallam. Funded by Spirit of 2012, Sport England and London Marathon Foundation.)

A people-first approach

Paralympian and Athletics Coach Esther Jones shares some key reflections from her coaching and how she ensures she is taking a person-centred approach.

Enable Leisure and Culture is a charitable trust that provides sport and leisure services across the London Borough of Wandsworth. They launched a Sporting Memories programme in Roehampton, a deprived ward with lower levels of physical activity than the London average and higher levels of crime and unemployment.

Focusing on supporting isolated older people, they worked with Wandsworth Council Sheltered Housing Service to promote sessions using flyers and posters in the Sheltered housing offices. Most of the participants already used the clubroom for other activities so it was a very familiar venue and within easy walking distance from their homes.

The Sporting Memories activity lasted around two hours and combined reminiscence therapy and gentle physical activity. Refreshments were available throughout the session, and everyone was encouraged to talk and socialise with each other. The sessions were well attended by individuals aged between 55 and 80.

Using resources provided by Sporting Memories UK and Fulham Football Foundation, the group discussed past sporting legends and reminisced about old memories. In between the discussions, the participants took part in gentle physical activity, including chair-based stretching, a basketball challenge, and boccia. Often amazing stories came out of the sessions, and participants said they looked forward to it all week. Some members of the group forged very strong bonds, and even go on holiday together.

Session Leader Lorraine added:

“Staff really value the experience of working with the older community, hearing their stories, and having an insight into their lives is a valuable and rare chance for most people. Adding volunteers get as much out of the session as the participants.

“The participants feel heard as well as having a place in their community. The sessions provide participants with a chance to share the best and worst parts of their lives through chatting about sports and related topics. The group have become really close and consider themselves close friends.”

Mo, one of the regular participants, says: “give it a try and you’ll like it! We all have a laugh and a chance to socialise.”

Another participant, Steve, stated that: “I live alone and through this I meet up with people, have a coffee and lots of fun – everything you want.”

 Key elements leading to the success of the sessions:

  • Appropriate training.
  • Application of the Ten Principles.
  • Consideration of the barriers and motivators of the specific audience.
  • Location of the session.
  • Minimal equipment.
  • Refreshments and time to socialise.
  • Placing of advertising for the sessions.
  • The value of word of mouth: sessions may start small but grow.

(GOGA Sporting memories, delivered by Activity Alliance in association with Enable Leisure and Culture and Age UK. Funded by Spirit of 2012.)

Building Rapport with Participants

It’s important to have a connection with your participants, regardless of age, experience, background, or ability. You must be able to establish a connection with each participant to coach effectively.

Establishing a good relationship with your participants will increase the likelihood of them returning to your sessions by establishing and maintaining trust and respect.

To develop rapport with your participants it’s important that you:

  • provide a welcoming environment
  • show interest in your participants and interests away from the session
  • listen to your participants and ensure you understand their needs and motivations
  • understand your participants’ values and modify your sessions to meet their needs
  • provide reassurance through encouragement and feedback
  • ensure everyone is included and able to participate in the session
  • introduce participants to one another and provide opportunities for conversation and connections
  • provide opportunities for participants to provide feedback
  • encourage participants to make decisions and provide them with choices within the session
  • observe your activities and notice participants’ interactions: remember, people may say and do different things
  • be yourself! Engage in conversations and ensure your behaviour is consistent.

Designing your programme with people at the heart of it is crucial in developing rapport.

Participants shared their thoughts on what they would like from the coaches who support them:

  • It’s not necessarily people like me, but people who get me.
  • Coaches need people skills over technical sport experience.
  • See me as an individual.
  • People with lived experiences similar to ours can have a huge benefit e.g. disability, impairment, income, ethnicity, and sexual orientation.
  • Create a welcoming environment and respond to our needs.
  • It’s less about what you deliver, its more about how it’s delivered.
  • Playing informal roles and supporting are often the most important.
  • Take the time to meet me as a person and catch up.

Coaches who have taken the time to connect and understand the people they coach have identified five benefits:

  1. It helps prioritise engagement over delivery.
  2. It helps reach communities.
  3. It creates opportunities to build confidence and contribute positively to well-being.
  4. It challenges your coaching practice and delivery style to meet the individual's needs, ensuring your sessions are inclusive and welcoming to all, in any setting.
  5. It changes your perceptions of people.

The WHO is as powerful as the what. For more on this, explore the GOGA’s ‘creating a workforce that gets me’ resource.

Key Skills and Qualities for Inclusive Delivery

This section considers the qualities that participants look for in an inclusive coach, the impact of your leadership style, and how you can make sure your communication is inclusive.

The most important qualities from a participant and deliverer perspective for creating an inclusive environment are:

  • trustworthiness
  • patience
  • enthusiasm and passion
  • being open-minded
  • being empowering and motivating
  • empathy.

The most important skills from a participant and deliverer perspective for creating an inclusive environment are:

  • communication
  • the ability to adapt to different needs and abilities
  • coaching skills
  • safeguarding
  • disability awareness
  • preparation and planning.

Inclusive communication

Communication is the most important skill for a coach. The ability to connect with people, share your thoughts and feelings, listen, understand, and provide information and feedback, all require great communication skills.

What is inclusive communication?

Appropriate inclusive and accessible communication is essential to deliver effective sessions. We communicate in many different verbal and non-verbal ways. You may have your preferred ways of communicating, and your participants will have their preferences.

Do you know what they are?

Within a coaching session, some of the different communication methods used include:

  • Speech, words, tone, and volume.
  • Body language.
  • Signs or signals.
  • Written text, cues and reminders, use of coaching cards.
  • Imagery; visuals, pictures, drawing on a whiteboard, and use of videos.

Reflect

How do you communicate most of the time?

Is it effective?

What could you do differently?

 

It’s important to be aware of the language you use to ensure you don’t deter people from enjoying your session.

Key considerations in relation to inclusive and accessible communication:

  • Are you aware of how you communicate? Do you always use the same method(s)? Does your communication change in pressured situations?
  • Body language includes conscious and unconscious movements, including facial expressions and posture. Are you aware of your body language? Does your body language ever convey a different message to what you say? This may be confusing to participants. Remember to smile, as this will help create a welcoming and inclusive environment.
  • Are you using a written format that is easy to read and accessible for everyone? Consider how they will read your written text. Will this be on a phone, laptop, smart device?

Body language

Body language and facial expressions are extremely powerful and can reinforce or impact your verbal communication. If you’re frowning when giving praise, what is the message that person receives? If you are giving feedback but not looking at the person, do they think you mean the points you have raised or value/care about them improving?

"When I am watching an activity or game; I stand back to allow me to see everything, it also stops me ‘jumping’ in with feedback. As I watch a activity I tend to fold my arms, I don’t like my hands in my pockets, and when I am thinking I sometimes raise my hand to my face. I am just noticing, thinking and analysing what needs to change and adapt. 

Feedback from the group was very different: you look closed, not interested and almost disappointed in what you are seeing. They felt it added pressure to them and that their performances were not good enough. 

“My body language was giving a totally different message to what I was thinking; it immediately made the participants defensive to any questions. The change was subtle, yet important. I held a ball in my hands, it stopped the closed body position, and changed my posture for the group to see. I am glad they felt they could share their thoughts and feelings as they have improved my coaching practice and helped our relationship.”

Written communication

Questioning

It’s important that you always check for understanding of your participants. Ensure this is done through open questions that encourage discussion and thought rather than closed questions requiring a yes or no answer. There may be occasions when a closed question works, such as to check if participants have heard an instruction, to assess their understanding, or to assist younger participants in narrowing down a decision or choice. However, as a general rule, closed questions should be used less frequently than open questions.

Take up time: provide enough time for participants to process and answer your questions. Never answer for someone or complete their sentence for them.

It is both what you say and how it is heard that is important. Think about the emotion in your communication, not just the message itself.  A really simple 'check in' before delivering your message is to consider how you would receive it if you were the participant.

Participants respond better to coaches who communicate in three ways:

  • Providing positive feedback after a good performance effort.
  • Using clear corrective instruction and encouragement after a performance mistake.
  • Combining technical instruction with general encouragement unrelated to performance.

(Smoll & Smith, 2006)

If you are coaching and supporting disabled participants, this handy guide from the Activity Alliance on accessible language may help.

It’s important that you demonstrate active listening as part of your approach to communication. Active listening means you give participants your full attention including their non-verbal communication.

As part of active listening, you should always try to ensure good eye contact, ask open questions, and reflect back what has been said.

Consider

Do your preferred methods of communication meet the needs of your participants?

Consider the formats you use (informal catch-ups, groups discussions, text message, emails, group communication tools (What’s App/Spond), signs and posters).

Consider how you follow up and check the messaging and understanding from the people you coach.

Consider when you communicate, as timings are really important. A late-night email or catching a parent as the children are getting into the car may not be the most effective time to pass on an important message.

Is it effective for the intended audience(s)? E.g. Children, parents/carers, adults, casual participants, serious competitors, or someone new to the sessions.

 

Small changes make a big difference and empower your participants to come back."

Final thoughts

Physical activity and sport can be a highly gendered environment, meaning that non-binary participants may feel more excluded than in other areas of their life. What barriers do they face in your environment and facilities? Kit and clothing? Changing facilities? Which toilet to access? Specific classes or groupings? Competition eligibility? Areas of the gym they can use?

Remember: language is hugely important for making individuals feel valued, cared for and welcome. For non-binary people, consider the messaging and language used on registration information and forms, promotional materials and the pronouns you use when speaking to them.

Your leadership style

Leadership plays a significant role in influencing a participant’s psychological development, well-being, and commitment.

As with your communication, your style of leadership is key to providing an inclusive environment. There are different leadership styles and approaches, and it is likely that you adopt elements, styles, and approaches throughout your sessions.

Are you aware of your preferred leadership styles? And most importantly are you aware of which leadership approach gets the best out of your participants?

A leadership style known as transformational leadership empowers change in individual behaviour and social environment, your coaching environment, and programmes. Transformational leadership can lead to significant positive change in participants, supporting them to progress from followers into leaders and take responsibility for their own development and the session environment through co-creation.

Practising a transformational leadership approach improves motivation, morale, and performance. These include encouraging participants to take greater ownership and responsibility and creating a sense of belonging to the group.

  1. Individualised Consideration refers to how well you meet the needs of each participant, acting as a mentor, and paying attention to their needs and concerns. Your behaviours include showing compassion and encouragement, maintaining open and regular lines of communication, and presenting stretch challenges to participants. This considers the participants’ need for respect and recognises the unique contribution each person can bring to the group. Individuals are self-motivated to develop and have a desire to achieve personal growth.
  2. Intellectual Stimulation refers to how much you challenge presumptions, take considered risks, and encourage contributions from participants to sessions and planning. This kind of approach inspires and supports creative thinking by participants. Nurturing independent thought through encouraging learning and taking opportunities within a session to be coachable moments to develop and grow.
  3. Inspiring Motivation refers to how effectively you communicate a vision that inspires participants. Inspirational coaches set high expectations and optimistic goals and generate a sense of purpose for activities and tasks. This creates energy for participants to achieve the vision, supported by communication that makes the vision clear, precise, and engaging. As a result, participants are willing to put in more effort, remain committed and have confidence in their abilities to achieve.
  4. Idealised Influence refers to how you role model consistent and high-quality behaviours, demonstrate pride and gain respect and trust from your participants.

To deliver a participant-centred, inclusive coaching session, you must adapt your coaching and leadership style to meet the needs of your participants.

Remember, some participants:

  • may not respond well to loud noises
  • may have had negative experiences of authority in other environments
  • may dislike change in the session or to the plan, timings and session logistics
  • want to be directed
  • want to have choice
  • may want to be involved in future planning and cocreation
  • like structure and to plan in advance
  • dislike hierarchy and a feeling of being overly managed.

All these factors will influence the most appropriate leadership approach you should use in your sessions and with the individuals that you coach.

Don’t forget: there will also be differences in your participants’ reasons for being active, their goals, and how they learn, all of which will further influence your coaching and leadership style.

Reflect

Is your leadership approach inclusive? It starts with your commitment.

 

Visible commitment: Is your passion for inclusion visible? Do you question the current situation? Hold the organisation and staff to account? Make a commitment to inclusive practice in your coaching?

Humility: Are you humble about your achievements, recognise and own your mistakes, create a safe space for participants and other coaches to contribute, make suggestions and co-create sessions?

Awareness of bias: ‘Walk a mile in someone else’s shoes’ encourages us to pause and consider someone else’s position. Consider how things look, feel and sound to them, becoming aware of your ‘blind spots’, and considering the lens you look through. Demonstrate knowledge of your own biases and make decisions based on people’s abilities.

Curious: Do you have an active mind, asking questions and searching for answers? Listen without passing judgement, and attempt to understand those around you with empathy and understanding.

Inclusively intelligent: Do you pay attention to other people's experiences, situations, and culture, flexing your approach and adjusting as necessary?

Think collaboration: Do you encourage cooperation? Empower others to take responsibility? Create a safe space for a variety of thoughts, ideas, and views? Value time spent creating connection and caring to develop group cohesion and empower others.

Adapting your communication

As part of delivering an inclusive coaching session, you may need to adapt your communication to meet the needs of participants. This is part of providing a person-centred environment.

You may need to adapt:

  • the language or words you use
  • the volume or tone of your speech
  • your timing
  • where you stand
  • your body language
  • signals used.

The key thing you must do is ask your participants how to best to communicate with them: don’t make assumptions. Keep asking this question as preferences may change over time, and ensure that you provide opportunities for participant feedback.

Examples of how you might adapt your communication:

  • Change your position to ensure participants can clearly see and hear you. For example, don't stand with the sun behind you, and avoid covering your mouth in case participants need to lip read.
  • Always be clear and concise. However, keep in mind individuals will understand language or retain information differently, including if English is not their first language. Therefore, you may need to speak more slowly, break information into chunks and reinforce key information using demonstrations, imagery or signs.
  • Do you always use participants’ names? If you use pronouns, do you know their preference? E.g., he, she, them. Do you know the terminology your participants prefer? E.g., wheelchair user.

Remember: language evolves and preferences for terminology will depend on the individual.

A great approach to understanding what your participants need is to ask their opinion. The Women in Sport network created ‘think, say, do’ as a way for coaches to consider what is important and ask great questions.

Creating and Delivering an Inclusive Coaching Programme

As we explore the practical tools and approaches you can use to deliver an inclusive session, consider how you can apply these to your coaching.

Think about your planning, in-session delivery and how you reflect on your sessions, behaviours, and participant engagement. This will help enhance the experience for you and your participants.

Throughout the next section, we will consider barriers to participation, adapting and modifying activities to meet your participants’ needs, positively managing behaviour and the role of supporters (assistance coaches and personal assistants/carers) in the sessions.

Even before taking part in your session, are you aware that a participant may have experienced several barriers to being there? This may include:

  • self-confidence or perceptions of others
  • lack of experience of physical activity and sport
  • cost of clothing or equipment
  • parental/carer support
  • transport to the venue and accessibility issues.

Therefore, you need to ensure potential barriers within your session are identified and overcome. This is where a person-centred approach and rapport with participants is essential.

Barriers to participation can be split into three types: psychological, logistical, and physical.

Psychological barriers may arise from the beliefs and perceptions of the individual or from the attitudes and perceptions of other individuals. For example, lack of confidence in their ability or previously being told they cannot take part.

Logistical barriers include anything to do with the set-up of the session, such as transport links, costs, timings of the sessions, duration of the session, distance to the venue and language barriers.

Physical barriers include elements such as lack of time, lack of energy, fear of injury, and cost of specific equipment.

Here are a few ideas from other coaches on how they have approached and overcome barriers within their programmes:

  • Swap shop for football boots; bring an old pair of boots and take away a new pair.
  • Meeting at the bus stop and using this as part of the warm-up to the session, The review takes place on the walk back.
  • Having and advertising that the ‘club’ has equipment for those new to the sport, so that you can ‘try before you buy.’
  • Opportunities to bring a friend to practice sessions.
  • Discounts for families with more than one person attending the club.
  • Creating a fixed and open end to the session; the session lasts for an hour, yet the coach stays for an additional 30 minutes with individuals to allow them to leave when their transport is available. This encouraged personal development plans and some participants chose to stay anyway!
  • Meet and greet at every session, begin with a check-in.
  • Coach allocated to meeting late arrivals to the session and integrating them into the session.
  • Assigning ‘buddies’ to new participants.
  • Offering the chance to watch a session before joining in.

Some of these barriers may be out of your control. However, it is important to be aware of them and take any steps you can to overcome the barriers for your participants.

The most important consideration is ‘how things are done’ in your coaching; this includes adapting the activities, session format, use of equipment and your approach to enable participants to to enjoy and engage in the session.

There are several approaches you can use during your session to help you adapt and modify your activities to ensure they are inclusive of everyone.

Two of the most useful ones are the Activity Inclusion Model and STEP Tool, which you should use in all your sessions. They are practical tools for supporting participants by making the activity more challenging or easier.

The Activity Inclusion Model is about the structure of the activities you deliver in your session and the STEP Tool provides a guide on how to adapt activities.

The Activity Inclusion Model (AIM)

AIM is a great tool when you are planning your sessions. It encourages you to consider your participants’ needs right from the start.

As part of your session, you may deliver open, modified, or parallel activities:

  • Open activities are when everyone takes part together with no or minimal changes to the activity.
  • Modified activities are when everyone does the same activity but in different ways. You may decide the individual modifications to the activity for each person or provide a range of choices to select from. You could provide individuals with a personal challenge or adapt the activity to help participants achieve the outcome, such as a throwing and catching activity with participants stood different distances apart or the use of a different size/weight ball to enable the participants to achieve the task.
  • Parallel activities are when individuals are grouped based on their ability and take part in an activity that is appropriate to their ability, such as badminton groups with no net, a low net and full height net, or the use of different shuttlecock colours to change the speed of the game. The activities may be the same or parallel: you have manipulated the space or people to make the activity harder or easier.

Remember: parallel activities should not be grouped by disability or impairment. You should differentiate the activities based on the individual’s competence and ability to achieve the outcome. You can also create choice for the individuals to try different activities and explore which one is the appropriate level of challenge for them. Participants may then move groups during the activity to find the one best suited to their current skill ability, with the appropriate level of challenge.

Providing the right level of challenge and support for the individual is important. Making the activity too easy will result in participants getting bored, or even creating their own activities, but if they’re too difficult, they will become unmotivated and ‘check out’ of the session. Noticing how your participants are engaging in the session, and tweaking activities and providing support is all part of great coaching.

Using an example of a running club, a coach could combine an open warm-up and check in at the start, followed by a parallel activity. The coach could provide three running activities based on distance and time. Within each activity, there may be modifications for specific individuals to keep them challenged appropriately. This may include running to a point on the route and then returning back to the group. They are active, working hard, challenged and still within the group.

The final section of the Activity Inclusion Model is specific activity. This is where an individual works separately to other participants on a specific skill. There are times when specific activities are needed as part of a session, however it must be purposefully planned based on an individual’s need, such as providing space for a talented performer to master a development skill or for an injured participant focusing on a return to play.

Specific activity must never be used to segregate participants or solely applied to a ‘group’ of participants, such as disabled people.

Have a go

Take one of your previous planned sessions and review your session plan based on AIM. Can you identify which elements of AIM you used in your session?

If you look at a few session plans, do you use one approach more than the others?

Could you challenge yourself to think differently?

 

The STEP Tool

The STEP Tool stands for Space, Task, Equipment and People. Activities can be made more accessible and inclusive by changing any one or more of these. The STEP Tool can be used to provide different levels of challenge so you can provider easier and harder activities:

  • Space: where the activity is taking place. You could make the area bigger, smaller, or change the shape completely (play in an oval) and this may include having different zones in the same activity. You could also change the target area for an individual or team in a striking game to score or restrict the space in a net game for one opponent e.g., one person is playing on a singles court and the other is playing the doubles area. However, consider who you are making the task easier and harder for in this example.
  • Task: how the activity is performed e.g., breaking it into smaller chunks, or changing the rules. You could change the task for the whole team so a set number of passes must be completed, or everyone must touch the ball. Changes could also be made for an individual, such as by giving them a task or challenge around a skill, teamwork or communication.
  • Equipment: what is used to do the activity e.g., providing a choice of equipment or offering adaptive equipment. Consider the impact that size has on the speed that an object moves (faster or slower), the challenges of smaller or larger rackets on success, or the potential to use different sized target areas or goals for different teams.
  • People: how participants are grouped e.g., unequal team numbers or overloading the attack/defence, based on ability or mixed groups.

Consider

Which elements of the STEP Tool do you most frequently use in your sessions? Which is the easiest to use?

Does your activity have modified equipment? Have you considered using equipment from other sports and activities to help you adapt? 

Have you considered the speed at which the activity is delivered? You could change the tempo, slowing it down or speeding it up depending on the participants' needs in the session.

 

Learning Opportunity

Learn more about delivering great inclusive sessions by completing the Inclusive Activity Programme eLearning module

FIND OUT MORE

When planning and delivering your sessions, you must focus on what your participants can do and design your activities accordingly. Any adaptations you make should be specific to the needs of the individual or group.

You must ensure that you:

  • speak to your participants to understand what they can do. Remember a specific impairment will not affect two individuals the same way
  • involve participants in decision-making and encourage them to suggest adaptations
  • understand your participants’ goals and what they want to get from the session
  • ask for feedback from all participants.

How and when to adapt activities

How and when you adapt your sessions will be based on the participants, your observations and discussions with them. You may need to adapt your session if it is too challenging or too easy for participants. or if the activity you have planned isn’t working as you expected to achieve the outcome.

You may identify that a group of participants need further support on a particular skill and so design an activity tailored to their needs. Likewise, you may adapt the space the activity takes place in to enable wheelchair users and ambulant participants (those able to walk) to take part together, such as by introducing zones.

Alternatively, you may alter the pace of the activity based on fitness levels, such as walking football. You may also need to consider how you could adapt your activities if someone is new to the session, returning after injury, finding tasks too easy or performing at a high level.

Remember: the adaptations you make may not always work first time. Don’t worry if this happens. Speak to your participants, get their ideas for how it could be improved and try again. This is an important part of the coaching process, as you reflect on the session and the outcomes to aid your planning for the next session.

Looking for inspiration? The Activity Alliance Inclusive Activity Cards show how you could adapt your activities.

Why not have a conversation with other coaches? Share how you adapt your activities and find out if they have a different approach and ideas that you can use. It’s great to speak to coaches from other activities and sports as they may have a different approach you can apply.

Have a go

Think of an activity you use in your coaching regularly. Now apply the STEP Tool to the activity. Can you think of eight different ways you can adapt or modify the activity?

As you become more confident and used to adapting your activities, you will find changes come naturally as you strive to meet your participants’ needs.

 

As part of the GOGA programme, Couch to 5K Coach Lazaros shared their experiences of adapting and modifying sessions to engage, motivate and meet the needs of the participants.

Lazaros has recently qualified as a Running Leader with UK Athletics. Being a keen fitness enthusiast and runner, Lazaros saw the progression to coach as a natural one for him.

"My sessions started in September, so I used the time since qualifying to get prepared, write session plans and create ideas so I felt ready to deliver. Before we started, I was concerned about different abilities and how much experience people may or may not have.

"However, once the sessions started and due to the different abilities in the group, it was difficult to follow the plan line by line. I found I had to be inventive and coach in the moment!

"This included selecting different routes, splitting the group, mixing and matching pairs during the warm-up, all of which helped me solve the problems I encountered. I soon realised that participants were always happy to come along to try something new and have fun, with someone like myself to help motivate them. I was their CEO, their Chief Encouragement Officer.

"One thing that made me very happy was seeing how much they appreciated my sessions, the knowledge I could give them, and how they grew from that. In the beginning, most of the participants couldn’t remember the last time they ran, even for the bus, and now, at the end of these sessions, they are running comfortably at least 3k and some even completing the 5k!

Planning is everything and the plan is nothing.

"I was quite surprised to see how willing the participants were to have a go and follow new instructions, ideas and advice and try new things without being overly concerned about a strict session plan. Flexibility was the key.

"We had some surprises with minor injuries such as ankle problems that required me to adapt the sessions to accommodate for the individuals concerned.

"In the beginning, they weren’t very mobile and their pace, breathing and running style were noticeably uncontrolled. Halfway through the programme their confidence, mobility, running style and breathing improved massively. I felt a real buzz of satisfaction that I had been able to help them on their journey.

"They listened to my advice and learnt self-control that led to a coordinated running style and pace. Over the sessions I noticed a change in their clothing; at the start participants came in regular/comfortable clothing but because they had enjoyed running so much a few sessions later they turned up dressed in full running gear. It was great to see the group transform with lanyards, reflective tops and even extra flashing armbands!

"In the beginning they were hesitant to do longer runs, whereas by the end of the programme they were asking me what extra they could do and how we could fit more into the sessions. Over time, the participants themselves had more and more input in shaping the sessions. They were challenging me, owning their own development, and co-creating the sessions.

"They began making time for a run in their own time during the weekend as well as coming to the Wednesday session. One week, I was back in Greece and unable to get another coach to cover my session. I told the participants the session was cancelled but they turned up in the cold and rain, and did it anyway!

"I first met one of the participants in the leisure centre where we meet as she was there to attend a Slimming World Group. I explained the benefits of the ‘Couch to 5K’ session to her. She attended the next session, and she became a driving force in bringing people along to the session from the Slimming World Group. A lot of the participants had eating and smoking habits that they wanted to change as well as a weight-loss goal. Through taking part in the ‘Couch to 5k’, the participants not only lost weight but they were also influenced to change many of their lifestyle habits.

"We’re planning on running a Park Run together soon. I introduced the idea of the Park Run to them at the beginning of the sessions. Most of the group had either never heard of it or had never considered that it was something they would be capable of. We are intending to make the Park Runs a regular part of the programme, something for individuals to aim for and take the opportunity to catch up socially.”

Positively managing behaviour

How you positively manage behaviour is a question that regularly comes up. When you experience challenging behaviour, the first thing you need to understand is the cause. Is the behaviour down to the session not meeting someone’s needs, that an individual doesn’t understand what is being asked of them, that they aren’t having fun or something else?

You should also consider if this is a one off, out of character behaviour that could indicate something has happened to influence the person. Is it regular behaviour or could it be triggered by someone or something in or out of the session?

Remember: if you are unsure and believe there is a safeguarding issue you should report this to your safeguarding/welfare officer.

Possible strategies to help you manage disruption in your sessions:

  • Tactically ignoring it. Do you need to highlight the issue? Will it stop itself? If you leave it, will it become a bigger problem? Will others join in or become affected by the behaviour?
  • ‘Smart groups.’ Changing groups and moving people away from each other who may become easily distracted or fall out with each other. Asking people to pair up, and number themselves one and two, before putting the ones and twos together is an easy and non-invasive way to separate a ‘challenging pair.’
  • Proximity control. You’re likely to be always moving around the group and between activities. Often, just moving closer to a disruptive or off task group is enough for them to return to the task or seek clarification on what they need to do!
  • Time of task. It can be difficult for individuals to stay on task for a long period of time. By framing the activity, duration will enable focus.
  • Check in verbally. Asking what they are doing and if they understand the task, and naming the person and the behaviour can help. ‘Chris, please stop swearing, I don’t appreciate that in the session. Not everyone is comfortable with the language.’ Remember the aim is to positively change the behaviour, praise publicly and challenge privately. People are more likely to challenge, push back and become frustrated if they feel embarrassed because you spoke to them in front of others.
  • Acknowledging emotions. It can be as easy as acknowledging how someone feels. They want someone to notice how they are feeling, and the behaviour is a way of signalling this. ‘I can see you are frustrated; how can I help?’; ‘I noticed from your expression that you are unhappy’. Often this doesn’t require a judgement or follow-up, just an acknowledgement that you have noticed how they’re feeling. Interestingly this helps build a social connection, increases relationships and has been shown to develop trust.
  • Safe space/time out. There may be times when you need to ask someone to leave or take time out of a session. It’s important to do two things. Firstly, issue a warning (or two) and give the individual an opportunity to correct their actions and behaviours, then warn them of the consequences of their behaviour: the time out. If the time out takes place, reaffirm why they are having a time out, what behaviour or actions you would like to see and how long the time out is for. Often a few minutes is enough to ‘break’ the situation. If you have a time out or miss a session with a young person, take the time to follow up with the parent/carer.
  • Reflective conversations/restorative practice. This may be at the end of a session, after a few weeks of minor incidents. Take the time to have a conversation and reset. This may be with two participants who have had a disagreement and you would like them to work better together within your sessions. The key is that this is to restore and reset the situation to move forward not another opportunity to just remind them of what they have done. Reset to start afresh.
  • Catch them in positive behaviour. When you see something that a participant is doing well, catch them in it and praise them publicly. This is very powerful for an individual who may be used to being challenged or ‘told off’. Hearing praise and confirmation of good work/effort is very empowering and a big driver to change behaviour as they want more praise and affirmations.

Taking a person-centred approach can help you understand the reasons for the challenging behaviour. With this understanding it may be that simple changes to the planning or delivery of your sessions eliminates future negative behaviour.

Remember the importance of involving your participants in planning, decision-making and feedback. This encourages them to take responsibility for their development and growth.

The role of supporters

When planning and delivering your sessions, it is important to consider those who assist or support delivery, including coaching assistants, informal volunteers, or supporters (personal assistants/carers) for specific participants.

It is crucial that these individuals are properly supported to deliver at a level appropriate to their skill level and experience.

When you have individuals with additional needs attending your sessions, they should not be singled out or partnered with a coaching assistant if this isn’t reflective of practice with all participants.

Remember in some instances it may be more effective for you to work with a small group of participants needing additional support and a coaching assistant to deliver an activity with the rest of the participants.

Are all the coaching team aware of individuals’ needs and challenges? How do you work as a team to support the individuals within your sessions?

Reflect

How do you as a coaching team discuss and share your thoughts on how best to support individuals? Do you include these conversations in your team meetings?

 

Activity Alliance conducted research with the people who support disabled participants to be active. The findings offer advice on how to engage with supporters/carers and help increase activity levels of disabled people.

Whilst the research focused on disabled people, the findings can be applied to individuals with other protected characteristics. 

  • Support networks may operate in a professional or personal capacity e.g., family, friends, or professionally paid support.
  • These networks can play an important role in encouraging individuals to be active.
  • The influence the support network can have is often impacted by how physically active the individual supporters are.
  • The most common type of support given is acting as a motivator and inspirer. This may include providing new ideas to be active or offering logistical support to enable them to take part.

You should consider support networks in your communication and promotion of sessions, as they may be the person that makes initial contact with you or decides to share with the disabled person. 

To encourage individuals to be more active, their supporters must:

  • be confident the activity/sport is relevant and suitable
  • be able to access information about the sessions, including key questions about safety, facilities, environment, audience and whether it is competitive or not. 

The benefits of connecting with a participant’s family and wider support network (parents, siblings, teachers, carers) include:

  • Moral support: encouraging the participant to attend, being their ‘cheer leader’ for trying hard and displaying effort and commitment at sessions and working with the coaching team. They also listen when things are challenging and offer a ‘arm around the shoulder’. They’re a positive influence, encouraging them to make good choices around their participation in physical activity and sport.
  • Financial support: paying for fees, membership, purchasing equipment and clothing and supporting transport costs.
  • Transport: providing transport to sessions and competitions.

Consider

How well do you connect and communicate with your participants’ support network? Have you considered how your communication, promotion and marketing appeals and engages with the participants’ support network?

 

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Related Resources

  • Ideas for Making Your Sessions More Inclusive

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  • Disability Awareness

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  • Building Successful Coach-Athlete Relationships

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